18 August 2021 | IMPORTANT NOTICE


In line with Ministry of Health guidance, our staff are currently working remotely. They remain available to assist and it is business as usual. However, we ask that wherever possible you contact us online or by email to registrar@buildingdisputestribunal.co.nz.

If you need to courier documents, please contact our Registry staff in the first instance to confirm the appropriate delivery details.

He waka eke noa.


A statutory process under the Construction Contracts Act
Apply Now

Statutory adjudication under the Construction Contracts Act (the Act) is the most commonly used dispute resolution process in New Zealand for resolving building and construction disputes, offering a unique, fast, and relatively straightforward statutory process for resolving disputes that arise under construction contracts.

Adjudication is quick and cost effective. Most disputes are resolved in less than six weeks from the time the process is initiated. The Act applies with very few exceptions to every construction contract that relates to the carrying out of construction work in New Zealand. Any party who has a dispute or difference with any other party to that contract can refer that dispute to adjudication.

A claimant (the party referring a dispute to adjudication) may secure the appointment of a Building Disputes Tribunal adjudicator within 24 hours of making an application. A claimant does not require the agreement of the respondent to apply to the Tribunal for the appointment of an adjudicator. The respondent cannot delay, avoid, or avert the adjudication process and will be bound by the outcome whether or not the respondent participates in the process.

The Building Disputes Tribunal is an independent, nationwide specialist dispute resolution service provider to the building and construction industry in New Zealand, has had over 25 years’ experience delivering fully administered end-to-end dispute resolution services including appointing adjudicators and administering adjudication proceedings in more than 1,000 adjudications under the Act

Talk to us today about how we can assist you with your building and construction dispute.

What types of disputes arise in adjudications?

Default liability

The Construction Contracts Act 2002 provides for a regime under which a payee (the contractor who is seeking payment) can issue its invoice in the form of a payment claim which requires the payer (the person or company who has engaged the contractor to provide services) to respond with either payment in full or a payment schedule which meets the requirements of the Act.

If the payer fails to pay or issue a valid payment schedule, the payee is entitled to initiate an adjudication claim for payment in full on the basis of default liability. If the payee can establish that it has issued a valid payment claim and no valid payment schedule has been provided in response, an adjudicator must determine the matter in the payee's favour and payment must be made within two working days of receipt of the adjudicator's determination.

A default liability claim can only be brought by the payee not a payer.

Claim on the Merits

A claim on the merits may be brought as an alternative to a default liability claim or on a standalone basis.

If you are a respondent to a default liability claim, you may also wish to consider initiating your own adjudication on the merits.

Disputes on the merits are adjudication claims which consider the substantive rights and obligations of the parties in terms of the construction contract that governs their relationship, or in the case of a contract with a residential occupier, the statutory warranties that are implied into every residential building contract under s362I of the Building Act regardless of whether there is a written building contract. Typical merits based disputes include disputes in relation to:

  • non-payment for work undertaken;
  • contract interpretation – what the parties actually agreed;
  • scope of work;
  • quality of work;
  • quality of materials;
  • time for completion;
  • payment – the value of the work undertaken in the absence of express agreement as to price;
  • estimates v actual cost;
  • variations – whether certain work is in fact a variation to the agreed scope of work and the value of that varied work;
  • defective work;
  • scope and cost of rectification work;
  • repudiation/cancellation of the contract; and
  • damages for breach of contract.

Why use the Building Disputes Tribunal for adjudication?

Building Disputes Tribunal has unrivalled experience in administering adjudication services in New Zealand

The Tribunal has been delivering specialist fully administered end-to-end dispute resolution services to the building and construction industry since 1990. The Tribunal has appointed adjudicators and administered adjudication proceedings in more than 900 adjudication cases under the Construction Contracts Act 2002 and our adjudicators have adjudicated approximately 85% of all building disputes referred to adjudication each year in New Zealand since 2008.

Fair, prompt, and cost effective

Building Disputes Tribunal is committed to resolving building and construction disputes fairly, promptly, and cost effectively. Fixed fee services for low value claims are available (claims under $100K subject to conditions).

24 hour appointment service and ongoing professional case management
The Tribunal’s experienced Registrars provide a highly efficient, comprehensive, and professional end-to-end case management and administration service. The Registrars help parties and their advisers understand the adjudication process and oversee and administer the adjudication process from the appointment of the adjudicator to delivery of the determination. This highly efficient registry service ensures certainty, consistency, and quality in the delivery of Building Disputes Tribunal’s adjudication service.
Highly skilled, experienced, and respected adjudicators
BDT’s adjudicators are selected to join our panel of adjudicators by invitation only. They are highly trained, skilled, experienced, and knowledgeable in construction law and practice, and are respected and recognised as leaders in construction dispute resolution in New Zealand and internationally. Our dispute resolution professionals are based in New Zealand, Australia, the UK, and other countries around the globe so as to provide the broadest base of expertise, experience, independence, and impartiality.
Peer review of all determinations
Unless a party takes objection, each determination by a Tribunal adjudicator is subject to ‘scrutiny’ before being given to the parties. This unique quality assurance mechanism makes Building Disputes Tribunal’s adjudication service New Zealand’s most reliable adjudication system.
Building Disputes Tribunal provides, free-of-charge, access to a wealth of resource material relevant to all of its processes, including guides, legislation, judgments, template forms and precedents, and Building Disputes Tribunal’s free online quarterly journal, BuildLaw.

Cost certainty for resolving building and construction disputes: Extension to the BDT Adjudication Low Value Claim Scheme

By Belinda Green.   One of the main barriers to dispute resolution is cost: no one wants to...

Construction Contracts – Enforcement of Debts Due and Mandatory Alternative Dispute Resolution Clauses

By Melissa Perkin. The recent High Court decision in Hellaby Resources Services Limited v Body...

The Enforceability of Liquidated Damages Clauses

Author: Melissa Perkin  Liquidated damages clauses, a common feature of construction contracts,...

Building and Construction Under COVID-19 Alert Level 4

For information and guidance on what building and construction work can be done at Alert Level 4:...

Class-action lawsuit against Harditex cladding fails

By Melissa Perkin.  A second class-action lawsuit[1] brought by a group of 144 homeowners whose...

What types of disputes can be referred to adjudication?

The types of dispute that can be referred to adjudication are listed below:  Default liability...

Proposed Changes to the Construction Retentions Regime

Author: Hannah Stanley, Building Disputes Tribunal Registrar Despite the introduction of the...

Show Me the Money: Seven Things to Remember When Preparing a Payment Claim

By Amy McDonald Are you still waiting on an invoice to be paid that you sent ages ago? Have you...

Experts’ duties and conflicting interests – Secretariat Consulting Pte Ltd v A Company

By Belinda Green. Experts may look to amend their terms of engagement, as the English Court of...

Payment Claims: using Xero to send out your invoices? Don’t forget the important notice

By Catherine Green.   Do you use Xero to send out your invoices? Make sure they are compliant...